Black and blue on legs and arms

Bruising on your Arms and  legs

  • A bruise is discoloration on the skin is caused by tiny blood vessels breaking under the skin. This causes blood from damaged veins and capillaries to collect near the surface of the skin. A bruise usually starts off as a black and blue patch of skin and gradually turns green or yellow as it heals.
  • Easy bruising in healthy individuals ranged from 12 to 55 percent. Women are more likely than men to report easy bruising.
  • Conditions associated with low platelets like leukemias  or myelodysplastic syndromes can present as easy bruising

Random bruising on your arm and/or legs (as well as on other body parts) can cause unsightly skin discoloration as a result of a mild trauma or injury. A bruise refers to bleeding underneath the skin. The tissue and capillaries are damaged losing fluids and blood. Many people find that they have unexplained bruising on legs and want to know what causes bruises to appear for no apparent reason. Some people also bruise more easily than others and a seemingly insignificant knock may leave a black and blue dark patch on their skin.

The coagulation system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood as disc-shaped anucleate particles for 7-10 days. Any deficiency of these coagulation elements can result in bruising.

Under normal circumstances, the resistance of the endothelial cell lining to interactions with platelets and coagulation factors prevents thrombosis. When endothelial continuity is disrupted and the underlying matrix is exposed, a coordinated series of events are set in motion to seal the defect (primary hemostasis).

In one United States survey of 500 healthy, ethnically diverse adults, 18 percent of individuals reported easy bruising. This finding is consistent with many other studies in which the frequency of easy bruising in healthy individuals ranged from 12 to 55 percent. Women are more likely than men to report easy bruising.

 

A bruise is discoloration on the skin is caused by tiny blood vessels breaking under the skin. This causes blood from damaged veins and capillaries to collect near the surface of the skin. A bruise usually starts off as a black and blue patch of skin and gradually turns green or yellow as it heals

 

Causes

Aging is a common risk factor for black and blues. Protective fatty layer in the skin to become thinner. This means that elderly people are more prone to random bruising than younger adults

Vitamin deficiency such as Vitamin C and K

Medications or Supplements such as aspirin,  ibuprofen, naproxen, antibiotics, and anticoagulant medications can cause clotting problems. This can result in random bruising or larger bruises from trauma to the skin. Also, supplements like ginkgo biloba, ginger, turmeric, St John’s Wort have blood-thinning properties and may make you bruise easily.

 

 

Hereditary conditions. unexplained bruising on your legs or body is because of hereditary factors.

Bleeding disorders like for example, hemophilia and Willebrand disease affect the blood’s ability to clot and can cause bleeding and excessive bruising resulting in black and bruises.

Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It is autosomal dominant, and its prevalence is estimated to be as high as one case per 1000 population. The hallmark of von Willebrand disease is defective platelet adhesion to subendothelial components caused by a deficiency of the plasma protein vWf. Von Willebrand disease is a relatively mild bleeding disorder, except in the occasional patient who is homozygous for the defect and who has severe bleeding often indistinguishable from classic hemophilia. The bleeding manifestations are predominantly skin-related and mucocutaneous (ie, easy bruising, epistaxis, GI hemorrhage).

Blood cell disorders. low platelets or conditions associated with low platelets like leukemias  or myelodysplastic syndromes

Connective tissue disorders like lupus

Too much sun exposure can damage your skin and cause you to bruise easily.

Skin trauma 

 

 

 

 

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